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Совет по правам человека
Двадцать девятая сессия
Пункт 3 повестки дня
Поощрение и защита всех прав человека,
гражданских, политических, экономических,
социальных и культурных прав,
включая право на развитие
Доклад Рабочей группы по вопросу о правах человека и транснациональных корпорациях и других предприятиях*
Выявление новых подходов и накопленного опыта в области соблюдения прав человека корпорациями: соображения
по итогам дискуссий, проведенных на Форуме 2014 года
по вопросам предпринимательской деятельности и прав человека
[Только на английском языке]
Identifying emerging approaches and lessons learned in corporate respect for human rights: reflections from discussions held at the 2014 Forum on Business and Human Rights
I. Introduction and background 1–7 6
II. Introductory reflections on the discussion on respect 8–11 7
III. Examples of companies’ efforts to integrate human rights in policies
and processes 12–24 8
A. Introduction 12 8
B. Policy development and senior management buy-in 13 8
C. Corporate-wide impact and risk mapping 14 9
D. Internal human rights training and capacity-building 15 9
E. Effectiveness of operational-level grievance mechanisms 16–17 9
F. General observations from the discussion on embedding the Guiding
Principles in company policies, processes and decision-making 18–24 10
IV. Examples of engagement between non-governmental organizations
and business to advance implementation of the corporate responsibility
to respect human rights 25–62 12
A. Introduction 25 12
B. Community relocation in the context of mining in Mozambique 26–35 13
C. Child labour and women’s rights on West African cocoa farms 36–45 15
D. Applying global framework agreements locally through mutual
responsibility in the textile sector 46–51 17
E. Privacy and freedom of expression on the Internet 52–55 18
F. Government perspectives 56 19
G. General observations from the discussion on relationships between
civil society organizations and business 57–62 19
V. Conclusions and recommendations 63–68 21
I. Introduction and background
1. The Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework clearly establish that all business enterprises have a responsibility to respect human rights. Understanding better what such respect for human rights might entail in terms of practical steps for companies in specific situations would constitute an important contribution to meeting that responsibility. That is the focus of the present report; it seeks to provide examples of action companies have taken, based on discussions held at the third Forum on Business and Human Rights, which was held from 1 to 3 December 2014.
2. Specifically, the report provides an overview of a session held at the Forum entitled “Respect in practice: progress and challenges in implementing the corporate responsibility to respect”. The session was convened by the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, and organized jointly with the Global Business Initiative on Human Rights (GBI) and the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC). The Working Group would like to thank GBI and BHRRC for their collaboration in organizing the session and for having prepared a report containing a detailed summary and analysis of the discussions.1 The present document is based on that report, and seeks to transmit key lessons and insights to interested parties. In the concluding section, the Working Group highlights observations and recommendations for the consideration of stakeholders.
3. One aspect of the Working Group’s mandate is to identify, exchange and promote good practices and lessons learned on the implementation of the Guiding Principles (A/HRC/17/31, annex).2 The Working Group also has a mandate to guide the annual Forum on Business and Human Rights that was established to discuss trends and challenges in the implementation of the Guiding Principles and promote dialogue and cooperation on issues linked to business and human rights, including challenges faced in particular sectors, operational environments and in relation to specific rights and groups, as well as identifying good practices.
4. The main themes of the third annual Forum included challenges faced and progress made by companies in integrating the corporate responsibility to respect human rights both in policy and in practice, as well as good practice models for meaningful stakeholder engagement.3 Accordingly, the “respect in practice” thematic sessions sought to facilitate a multi-stakeholder dialogue about good practices, lessons, challenges, shortfalls, innovations and complexities relating to implementation of the second pillar of the Guiding Principles and the “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework, which is the corporate responsibility to respect human rights.4
5. The overall aim of reporting on the thematic sessions is to make available to a wider audience concrete experiences and lessons presented at the Forum in order to build common knowledge and support further efforts to implement the Guiding Principles.
6. The Working Group would like to note that the examples highlighted in the present report constitute a limited sample of the practices presented by companies that participated in the Forum and that were willing to share their perspectives in public in a multi-stakeholder setting, which a number of other companies are not yet ready to do. Moreover, the fact that the examples were discussed as part of the thematic discussion on “respect in practice” does not imply any endorsement of them as “good practice”, nor of the company overall, its policy or action taken to respect human rights. The primary purpose in discussing the case studies is to facilitate the exchange of experience and mutual learning among business, civil society and Governments.
7. Based on its own assessment, and feedback received from all stakeholder groups, the Working Group would like to facilitate more of that type of focused and action-oriented discussion around specific cases and experiences. In that regard, it commends the companies, non-governmental organizations and States that shared their experiences and perspectives at the Forum.
II. Introductory reflections on the discussion on respect
8. The Working Group acknowledged the key importance of using the annual Forum to explore the complexity of what corporate respect for human rights means in practice, and to involve a diverse range of stakeholders in the discussion. With the support of GBI and BHRRC, the aim was to take an innovative approach by looking both inside companies to understand the policies and systems being put in place, and at the same time, at how business engages with civil society organizations.
9. Inside companies, all actors must appreciate the need to develop robust policies, operating procedures, processes and systems. However, it is also necessary to look at the cultural, “people-side” of respect for human rights, be it the message from the chief executive officer (CEO) or the decision of the manager on the ground, as those two dynamics need to work together to achieve effective and sustained human rights due diligence. The Working Group has consistently highlighted the need for more companies to talk publicly about their systems, which in some instances are highly sophisticated and robust from a human rights perspective, and not just from a business management perspective. For the Working Group, that is imperative in order to ensure that the vast majority of companies that are new to the business and human rights agenda do not have to reinvent the wheel, and also in order to recognize that it is essential to close the gap between “leaders and laggards”. A common challenge is that there is often reluctance for companies to share their approaches and lessons, in part because it is very easy to go from “hero to zero” when things go wrong. Furthermore, good people can make bad decisions, and good systems can sometimes lead to bad outcomes. That reinforces the need to engage with experts and external stakeholders who can support due diligence approaches.
10. Moreover, in exploring the nuts and bolts of corporate respect for human rights in very practical terms, it is not only necessary to address what goes on within companies when putting in place policies and systems, but also how companies engage with affected stakeholders and civil society organizations. While relations with communities and civil society organizations are sometimes tense, they can also be hugely constructive for all parties if approached correctly.
11. Another central aspect relates to the role of Governments, as both business integration and relationships between companies and civil society are influenced by the context, or operating environment, that the Government creates. However, that is also a complex task, meaning that it is key for Governments to learn about what it takes to achieve corporate respect for human rights. Governments need to understand the challenges and concerns of communities, civil society and business in order to be effective in meeting their own duties to protect human rights and ensure access to effective remedy when business interests have adverse impacts on human rights.
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