Международный Форум «голоэкспо-2007»




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С.Б. Одиноков, МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, г. Москва, Россия;


А.Ю.Павлов, ООО «ГолоСпринт», г. Москва, Россия.

С.19) «A Study on the Z-Axis Angle and Gray Scale for the Arrow Sign Representation by Using Reflection Hologram»

Ya-Ling Huang , Hao-Jun Chan, Department of Visual Communication Design, Kun Shan University, Taiwan.

А.М.Алексеев, А.В.Павлов, Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Университет Информационных Технологий, Механики и Оптики, Санкт-Петербург, Россия.

С.20) «О возможности реализации логики с исключениями методом Фурье-Голографии»

А.М.Алексеев, А.В.Павлов, Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Университет Информационных Технологий, Механики и Оптики, Санкт-Петербург, Россия.

С.21) «Акустооптический метод оптической профилометрии для идентификации защитных голограмм»

Б.С.Гуревич, С.В.Андреев, ОАО «Научные приборы», С.-Петербург, Россия;

В.В.Шаповалов, Колесов И.А, НИКТИ Биотехнических систем, С.-Петербург, Россия;

А.В.Беляев, Институт аналитического приборостроения РАН, С.-Петербург, Россия.

С.22) «Программно-аппаратный комплекс «ГОЛОИНИД» для индивидуализации и идентификации защитных голограмм со скрытыми кодированными изображениями»

С.Б.Одиноков, А.Ю.Павлов, Д.С.Лушников, МГТУ им Н.Э. Баумана, Москва, Россия.
СПРАВОЧНАЯ ИНФОРМАЦИЯ
Язык Конференции и Форума – русский и английский.

Тезисы докладов будут опубликованы и предоставлены участникам конференции.

ВНИМАНИЕ!

Иллюстративные материалы, необходимые докладчику в процессе выступления подготавливаются на флэш-карте или CD–диске в формате Word 2003, Microsoft PowerPoint 2003.

Оргкомитет: Ph. +7 (495) 263-63-44, 603-01-42, E-mail: odinokov@rl2.bmstu.ru , http://www.holograms.ru

ТЕЗИСЫ ДОКЛАДОВ И ОФИЦИАЛЬНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ,

ПОСТУПИВШИЕ В ПРОГРАММНЫЙ КОМИТЕТ

ОТ УЧАСТНИКОВ НАУЧНО-ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЙ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ

«ГОЛОГРАФИЯ В РОССИИ И ЗАРУБЕЖОМ.

НАУКА И ПРАКТИКА»

ФОРУМА «ГОЛОЭКСПО-2007»
ПОСЛЕ 25 АВГУСТА 2007г.


Секция №1

Доклад № 1.7 9.50-10.05
«A perspective on the direction of future technology of optical images used in anti-counterfeit and security applications»
P Dunn and R Herring

OpSec Security Ltd, UK
Summary
The use of optically variable devices (OVD’s) as anti-counterfeit solutions and for product authentication, has grown at a steady rate over the past 20 years. The growth in the various markets utilising these solutions and in the developments of the technologies supporting them are inexorably linked. In this presentation, we will look at the factors that have influenced the evolution of the optical devices that have now become the basis for the optical features in today’s global market.

From OpSec’s own perspective and reflecting a broader and global view, we will look at the role of the overt feature, the covert feature and specific authentication technologies such as machine read. An understanding of the factors leading to the current optical features will lead to a better understanding of the possible next generation of technologies required to meet future market needs. We will consider how might the future optical devices look like over the next 5 or 10 years and whether holography will still have a role to play? Such questions will be addressed in a final summary of the key factors that will influence these developments of the future generation of OVD technology.
1. Introduction
The early 1980’s saw holography emerge from the shadows as a “Technology looking for an application” to the foundations of a new era in anti-counterfeit technology and document security. The combination of the development of the rainbow hologram in 1968 coupled with the embossing of surface relief structures in 1979 resulted in Mastercard making the first mass produced, embossed hologram for security in 1982. This was quickly followed in 1983 by the now famous Visa Dove hologram. The success of these applications coupled with developments in hot stamping foils, label constructions and embossing equipment formed the basis for a rapid growth in several security markets such as Banknote and High Security, Brand protection and Government and ID documents.

Holography proved to be the cornerstone of the optical technology whose primary function then, and still today, is an overt device for public recognitions, but also to enhance the security of the product to which it is attached by being extremely difficult to counterfeit or simulate.

Today, holography is just one of a myriad of technologies now used as visual security devices operating as the first line of defense. As a security device in today’s market they must also facilitate 2nd line (simple equipment verification) and 3rd line (more sophisticated and specialist machine readable systems) security inspection.
In the following presentation, we will look at the development of the optical technologies used in such applications and assess the factors that have influenced their development and use. The evolution of the optical technology, the support technology and the markets, has established the current status today. We learn from these developments which in turn help define the technologies for tomorrow.

We will look at where we see the key trends and emerging technologies, and how we might achieve them. What will be the shape of the future security company, what kinds of technologies will meet the markets demands, and will holography still have a role to play?
2. Early Years
For most of the 80’s, conventional holography was the dominant growing technology. 2D-3D and 3D holography grew in its complexity of design and technologies were developed and improved to allow more complex, full colour images with a high degree of registration. This technology is still used today by some of the leading company’s in anti-counterfeit/security applications. Its advantage is that with a good design the image can be easily identifiable as a technology, clearly differentiated from print. The 3D effect, rainbow colours and additional features such as image switching, make this a prime candidate for a public recognition feature.

As “Applied Holographics”, an early embodiment of OpSec, we developed a high quality film camera system and a process to convert the plan footage into a high quality stereogram system. One of the earliest examples is the well known Shakespeare hologram, applied as a hot foil onto a credit card, and again the unique and dynamic visual features were a major contribution to its success as an anti-counterfeit device.

Certainly, the advance of the colour copier in the 80’s was a driving factor to the success of the hologram and through this early period, the competition grew. Counterfeits were few and generally based on limited technology. Some of the limiting factors to the success of the early holograms were:-


  • The quality of the diffraction fringes related to 3D, and stereogram holograms. The higher resolution and lower modulation made embossing more difficult and the reduction in quality was further impacted when the image was made on a hot foil applied to a rough surface such as paper.




  • The analogue system for stereograms was slow and expensive, high frequency fringes limited embossing quality.



  • The holograms required specific lighting to replay the full 3D effect and the holographic ‘fringes’ aligned generally in the one direction, ensured the hologram could only be observed under limited lighting and viewing conditions


3.The digital era
The visual limitations imposed by conventional holography and the relatively slow speed to create complex masters, spawned the evolution to the next phase of optical technology. In the early 90’s, three company’s, Applied Holographics, (UK), Dimensional Arts (USA) and Toppan (Japan), were granted patents for computer controlled origination of pixelated holograms. The dot matrix hologram was born. Within a year of its

development, more than 50% of the holograms made by Applied Holographics, used Dot Matrix. The brightness, the 360 degree view, the lack of depending on controlled lighting to see the image, were all immediate advantages seen by the customer. However, the ease of making security images by this method was not lost on the counterfeiter, made easier by legitimate companies willing to sell the technology to any buyer. The security value of this technology was rapidly diminished, but this in turn spurred many groups on to develop a broader range of digital imaging methods developing methods such as direct writing using lasers or electron beam or liquid crystal screen. Other companies such as Ahead and Applied Holographics, enhanced the dot matrix systems to offer unique features to differentiate from the competing systems. Many of the digital images were created from sample gratings and not holographic (2 beam interference with one object modulated beam) and the term DOVID (Diffractive Optically Variable Image Device) was introduced.

During this time, the overt feature remained the primary function of the image (the public feature), but as the number of counterfeits grew, the competition increased and the customers demanded more from the security value of the DOVID, the use of covert features increased. Hidden graphics or text, micro-text, micro features, laser readable elements, acute angle views etc. were all introduced in attempts to provide an authentication to the visual image. It is interesting to note that in most cases, the counterfeit images made no attempt to copy the covert features, re-enforcing the importance of the visual/overt image.

As better global communication helped the counterfeiter make better holograms, the need to generate new DOVID’s that offered a more clear visual differentiation both from the counterfeiter and the competitors products, increased.

To enhance the difficulty in copying the visual features, Applied Holographics were one of the first companies to introduce multiple technologies into the one image (multigram), a process that has grown to become a key component in today’s successful anti-counterfeit device. By the end of the 1990’s Dot matrix technology grew and systems were available on the open market, diminishing the security value of the dot matrix based DOVID.

In an effort to enhance the security value, the 90’s also saw the introduction of many covert machine readable systems competing with DOVID, using an array of different technologies such as print, colour shift inks, biological, magnetic, luminescent, taggants etc, but through all their successes, the visual security element has remained as a primary feature. Despite the emerging competitive technologies, and the success of competitive visual technologies such as colour shifting inks, the DOVID continued to grow through the 90’s to the present day and as reported in Holography News in January 2007, the increase in manufactured hologram output alone has risen by between 12,000% and 14,000% from 1986 to 2006.


  1. The 21st Century


The early part of the 21st century saw the DOVID maintain its growth in the defined markets in Brand protection, ID and Banknotes and High Security Documents. These markets began to establish clear differences in their requirements of the DOVID as a security feature. The internet provided an ideal tool to make the DOVID vulnerable to the high speed information exchange enabled by the internet. Methods of copying or simulation became more accessible to the counterfeiter and the threat to the integrity of the DOVID as a valuable security device, came under increasing threat. The market required that security was increasingly based on novel and diverse technologies in order to provide adequate resistance to counterfeiting. Interference Security Imaging Structures (ISIS) developed in the 90’s began to make a bigger impact – multilayer structures such as dielectric thin films, gave us optically variable inks (OVI’s), liquid crystal layers, provided new visual features exhibiting unique colour shifting effects. The combination of ISIS and DOVID, provides a high level security feature and points the way to one option for the future security device.

In terms of diffractive devices, the increase in counterfeiters competence to produce good copies has driven the industry further to push the boundaries of technology progress. There have been two important development trends in recent years that have helped support this growth, deter the counterfeiter and provide confidence for the customer. The trends are in material development and Nanotechnology both developed in the 90’s, but realized commercial potential in recent years.

Developments in material technology has seen the application of high refractive index coatings to DOVID laminate overlays onto ID documents, the inclusion of high precision DOVID’s integrated into banknotes, transparent windows, high precision register of de-metalisation. In addition, materials for iron-on labels DOVID’s incorporated in fabric etc have provided increasing opportunities in the Brand Protection market.

Perhaps the biggest impact on the visual (overt) and covert feature in recent years has been the progress in nanotechnology. The early blazed gratings are a good example used successfully in the 1990’s. Control of the structure of the diffraction fringe is epitomised in Jim Cowen’s invention of the Aztec grating structure. Such structures have the potential to display the visual effects of the volume hologram while being massed produced by embossing methods. The advantage of both horizontal and vertical parallax as well as ISIS style colour switching effects are the prize on offer when this technology can be commercialised. High frequency gratings such as zero order devices (ZOD’s) developed by Gale et al and the Diffractive Identification Device (DID) used by Hologram Industries, are pointing the way to a suggested direction of future technologies for DOVID’s.

What is driving these developments is the need to maintain the visual differentiation of the DOVID. This has been the driving force throughout the development of the optical security device, but today the conventional hologram, dot matrix or pixelgram, no longer provide the unique security visual feature they once offered. The growing use of Electron beam technology has driven the diffraction image to new levels of sophistication and complexity, but is this enough? What technology is required for the future? What does the customer and market want and need? I would suggest this is answered by a simple statement from a customer:
What we need is a new type of image that is bright and easy to see in any lighting conditions, is clearly different from any existing technology, provides huge barriers of entry to competitors, is virtually impossible for counterfeiters to make a ‘pass-off’ and is easy for the general public to understand.”
If we add to this that it should cost no more than current products and can be mass produced in the same quantities, we see the magnitude of what is expected. If we look at this statement as if it were written in 1979, would holography have provided the answer? If we ignore the point about being seen in any lighting conditions, then I think we can safely say the answer is yes.


5. The Future
What the statement in the previous section suggests is that holography has passed its time. The success of the hologram is also its downfall. Does this mean that holography has no role to play in the future? – we do not think so. The growth of the development of the hologram / DOVID is something we can learn from. Once the single hologram devices were threatened by the counterfeiter in the 90’s, the multigram (combination technologies) emerged and this is still a successful solution today. What we must accept is that the hologram or diffractive image as it stands today will not on its own, be sufficient to provide the level of security in the coming years and even today in some applications. New visual technologies are being developed all with the idea to offer a visual differentiation from the convention holographic/diffractive device. But these also will not maintain a success on the own, the ability to combine technologies will again offer the more unique solutions, but this time the core technology is unlikely to be holographic.

But this does not provide the whole answer because part of the customers desire for a new type of image stated that “it must be easy for the general public to understand”. As in the case with banknotes or credit cards the general public do not have the knowledge or training or even sufficient interest to inspect an authentication device. Easy to understand by the general public means easy to verify. The more complex the image design, the more difficult it will be for the general public and even the customer, to verify its authenticity. This provides an interesting dichotomy, the successful image must be sufficiently complex to offer the right security level, but must be relatively simple to view and therefore verify. Partially this is the domain of the optical developers, but in the face of increasing numbers of new optical technologies, it becomes an essential role for the designer. At OpSec we have cultivated a unique design team with many years of experience combining design flair with a firm understanding of the technology and development. Key to this success in the future is an understanding of the Performance Criteria for all DOVID’s, relating the needs of the application of the security device to the technologies required to ensure the final optical device is fully fit for purpose.

The structure and focus of OpSec is also developing to meet the changing requirements of today and the future. We no longer view ourselves as a manufacturer of holograms, but as a solutions provider offering systems and supply chain solutions which in some cases incorporate DOVID’s, but in some they do not. From an R&D perspective

our focus is firmly fixed on new technologies from both internal and external resources, but with a little holography.

Having said all this of course, we cannot know the future and therefore what developments may emerge in the world of holography. Developments in photo-polymers has gained great momentum in the last two or three years, and may offer a new lease of life for the hologram. The cycle continues.
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